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The Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory

List of past and present HVDC subsea cable projects

Project
Year of installation
Length (km)
Rating (MW)
Voltage (kV DC)
Polar type / Operation
Gotland 1 (Sweden) 1954 to 1986 (Dismantled) 96 30 150 1 cable / Monopole
Gotland 2 & 3 (Sweden) 1983 (G2) 1987 (G3) 92 260 ±150 2 cables / Bipolar mode
Konti-Skan 1 (Sweden - Denmark) 1965 to 2006 (Replaced) 87 250 250 1 cable / Monopole
Konti-Skan 1 & 2 (Sweden - Denmark) 1988 (KS2) 2006 (KS1) 88 300 (KS2) 380 (KS1) ±285 2 cables / Bipolar mode
Inter-Island (New Zealand) 1965-1991 42 600 ±250 2 (+1) cables / Bipolar mode
Inter-Island (New Zealand) 1993 (Upgrade) 42 1240 -350 Hybrid scheme / Bipolar mode
Inter-Island 3 (New Zealand) 2013 (Upgrade) 40 735 350 Hybrid scheme / Bipolar mode
SACOI (Italy - France - Italy) 1967, 1986, 1992 119 300 ±200 2 cables / Monopole
Vancouver 1 & 2 (Canada) 1968, 1977 33 682 +260, -280 2 cables Bipolar mode
Skagerrak 1&2 (Norway - Denmark) 1976, 1977 124 500 250 2 cables - Bipole later converted to monopole
Skagerrak 3 (Norway - Denmark) 1993 124 500 (Total 1000) 350 1 cable / Monopole
Skagerrak 4 (Norway - Denmark) 2015 137 700 (Total 1700) 500 1 cable operation with SK3 in bipolar mode
Cross Channel (UK - France) 1986 86 250 ±270 8 cables / Bipolar mode
Fennoskan 1 (Sweden - Finland) 1989 2013 (Upgrade) 200 500 400 1 cable / Monopole
Upgraded 2013 to bipole with FS2
Fennoskan 2 (Sweden - Finland) 2011 200 800 (Total 1300) ±500 2 cables / Monopole
Hokkaido – Honshu (Japan) 1980 to 2012 (Replaced) 1993 2012 43 600 ±250 1 cable / Monopole, Upgraded 1993 to bipole
Baltic Cable (Sweden - Germany) 1994 250 600 450 1 cable / Monopole
Kontek (Denmark - Germany) 1995 52 600 400 1 cable / Monopole
Leyte – Luzon (Philippines) 1997 21 440 350 1 cable, 1 spare Bipolar mode
Haenam – Cheju (South Korea) 1998 96 300 ±180 2 cables / Bipolar mode
Kii-channel crossing (Japan) 2000 49 1400 ±250 2 main cables 2 return cables Bipolar mode
SwePol (Sweden - Poland) 2000 239 600 450 1 cable and 1 metal return cable Monopole
GrIta (Italy - Greece) 2001 163 500 400 1 cable / Monopole
Moyle Interconnector (UK) 2001 55 500 ±250 2 cables Monopole
Cross Sound (USA) 2002 40 330 ±150 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Troll A 1 & 2 (Norway) 2005 68 88 ±60 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Basslink (Australia) 2006 290 600 400 One cable / 1 metal return Monopole
Estlink 1 (Finland - Estonia) 2006 74 350 ±150 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Neptune RTS HVDC Link (USA) 2007 82 660 500 1 cable and 1 metallic return
HVDC Plus Monopole
Strebaelt HVDC Link (Denmark) 2007 56 600 400 2 cables and 1 metallic return cable
Monopole
NorNed (Norway - Netherlands) 2008 580 700 ±450 2 cables Symmetric Monopole
BorWin 1 (Germany) 2010 125 400 ±150 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Trans Bay (USA) 2010 83 400 ±200 2 cables HVDC Plus Bipolar mode
BritNed (UK - Netherlands) 2011 250 1000 450 2 cables/bundled Bipolar mode
SAPEI (Italy) 2011 420 1000 ±500 2 cables Pole 1 (2008) Pole 2 (2010) Bipole
Valhall (Norway) 2011 292 78 150 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
COMETA (Spain) 2012 237 400 ±250 2 cables 1 metallic return Bipole
East - West Interconnector (UK - Ireland) 2012 186 500 ±200 2 cables / HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Nan'ao Island multi-terminal (China) 2013 10 200/100/50 ±160 Multiple x 2 cables / Bipolar mode
Estlink 2 (Finland - Estonia) 2014 145 650 450 1 cable, classic bidirectional monopole,
integrated metallic return
Jindo – Jeju (South Korea) 2014 101 400 ±250 2 cables / bipolar (3 cables (one as return)
plus another metallic return)
SylWin 1 (Germany) 2014 160 864 ±320 2 cables HVDC Plus Bipolar mode
Zhoushan City multi-terminal (China) 2014 129 400/300/100/ 100/100 ±200 Multiple x 2 cables / Bipolar mode
BorWin 2 (Germany) 2015 125 800 ±300 2 cables HVDC Plus Bipolar mode
DolWin 1 (Germany) 2015 75 800 ±320 2 cables HVDC Light Bipolar mode
Helwin 1 (Germany) 2015 85 576 ±250 "symmetric monopole"
Helwin 2 (Germany) 2015 85 690 ±320 2 cables HVDC Plus Bipolar mode
Åland Link (Finland) 2015 159 100 ±80 2 cables HVDC light Bipolar mode
NordBalt (Sweden - Lithuania) 2015 450 700 ±300 2 cables HVDC light Bipolar mode
Xiamen Island (China) 2015 11 1000 ±320 2 cables Bipolar mode
Xiamen Island (China) 2016 141 916 ±320 2 cables Bipolar mode

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