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The Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory

List of HVDC subsea projects with sea returns

Project
Year of installation
Electrode Current (A DC)
Grounding Electrodes
Electrode Material
Gotland 1 (Sweden) 1954 to 1986 (Dismantled) 914 One pond and one electrode Magnetite/linseed impregnated graphite, copper
Gotland 2 & 3 (Sweden) 1983 (G2) 1987 (G3) 910 Two pond electrodes Magnetite
Konti-Skan 1 (Sweden - Denmark) 1965 to 2006 (Replaced) 1050 One marine + one shore electrode Graphite/coke, copper
Konti-Skan 1 & 2 (Sweden - Denmark) 1988 (KS2) 2006 (KS1) 1350 One marine + one shore electrode Graphite / coke
Inter-Island (New Zealand) 1965-1991 1200 One shore + one land electrode Mild steel/coke, Silicon-iron/coke
Inter-Island (New Zealand) 1993 (Upgrade) 2400 One shore + one land electrode Mild steel/coke, Silicon-iron/coke
Inter-Island 3 (New Zealand) 2013 (Upgrade) 2400 One shore + one land electrode Mild steel/coke, Silicon-iron/coke
SACOI (Italy - France - Italy) 1967, 1986, 1992 1500 One pond, one marine + one land electrode Coated titanium, copper, FeSiCr
Vancouver 1 & 2 (Canada) 1968, 1977 1800 One pond + one shore electrode Graphite, Silicon-iron/coke
Skagerrak 1&2 (Norway - Denmark) 1976, 1977 1000 Two shore electrodes Graphite / coke
Skagerrak 3 (Norway - Denmark) 1993 1000 Two shore electrodes Graphite / coke
Skagerrak 4 (Norway - Denmark) 2015 1000 Two shore electrodes Graphite / coke
Fennoskan 1 (Sweden - Finland) 1989, 2013 (Upgrade) 1280 Two marine electrodes Coated titanium, copper
Fennoskan 2 (Sweden - Finland) 2011 1700 Two marine electrodes Coated titanium, copper
Baltic Cable (Sweden - Germany) 1994 1364 Two marine + one land electrode Coated titanium, copper
Kontek (Denmark - Germany) 1995 1500 Two marine electrodes Coated titanium, copper
Leyte – Luzon (Philippines) 1997 1260 Two shore electrodes Silicon-iron/coke
Haenam – Cheju (South Korea) 1998 834 Two pond electrodes Aluminium alloy
GrIta (Italy - Greece) 2001 1250 One marine + one pond electrode Coated titanium, copper
SAPEI (Italy) 2011 2500 One marine + one pond electrode Coated titanium, copper

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